Category Archives: CPAP

Question: I was taught that if there is some clinical improvement, when using CPAP, we are not to titrate the pressure any higher. I understand the rationale for this, however my question is, are there clinical guidelines that quantify a patient having sufficient "clinical improvement"?

Example being a patient breathing at a rate of 34 bpm with accessory muscle use, sp02 of 85%, audible crackles through all 4 lobes. With CPAP applied at 5 cmH20 vitals improve to RR of 28 bpm, sp02 of 91% and crackles remain. This patient has had a degree of improvement but would it not be advisable to titrate the pressure 2.5 cmH20 higher (after 5 mins) to attempt to further normalize the patient's VS and clinical condition? Or is the goal to increase the sp02 above 90 % with no accessory muscle use and decrease RR below 28 bpm as the directive lists these as conditions needed for application.

Question: VSA trauma patients - chest compressions and defib is the priority for this patient. C-spine maintained manually. In this scenario, is it mandatory to apply a collar prior to a shock being delivered as the manual c-spine must be removed to deliver the shock?

CPAP- indication b/p 100 or above systolic. Contraindication is hypotension. If CPAP is applied while normotensive, can we leave the device on until they become hypotensive or we must remove when b/p drops below 100? Thanks.

Question: CPAP for CHF and COPD is to maintain a constant pressure in the airways (splinting with COPD) and to help push the fluid out of the alveoli and into the circulation with CHF. Would paramedics who do not have CPAP available be wrong, if the patient is conscious and tolerates, assist each inhalation with a BVM to increase tidal volume and create more positive pressure during inhalation, although not maintained with exhalation, in an attempt to force the fluid out with CHF. Debate is that we assist the ventilation at one breath every 5 seconds or 12/minute unless hyperventilating due to head trauma and respiratory problems with coning of the pupil(s). Thanks for the assistance.

Question: I have heard from our base hospital that MAC is considering removing KING-LT airways from the directives? Is this true, and if so, what supraglottic rescue airway option are they looking at going to, both for ACP's and PCP's. Not every patient can be ventilated using BVM alone.

I've also heard that they are looking at removing needle cric and intubation from ACP scope? If this is true, then why? Intubation does have major problems in the pre-hospital setting, but outside of cardiac arrest it is a very valuable method of controlling the airway (the gold standard) especially for long transport times or complex patient presentations.

Finally, I understand the theoretical rational behind not using CPAP in asthma PTS, but there are services in North America using it for end-stage asthma exacerbation as a option before intubating the patient. They combine low levels of CPAP (3-5 cmH2O) with a salbutamol nebulizer tied in line to the CPAP mask and are getting good results.

Is there any possibility of a clinical trial of CPAP in asthma exacerbation refractory to salbutamol/epi alone? Is there evidence against using it in asthma (besides theoretical problems).

Question: If a patient meets the protocol for having CPAP treatment but they have a valid DNR Confirmation Form can a PCP still administer CPAP?

Question: We had a patient who presented with bi lateral crackles and patient was in obvious distress and fit all of CPAP criteria, however the patient had a temp of 38.5. I remember that during our training it was clearly demonstrated that a patient with pneumonia is contraindicated for use of CPAP. Upon looking over the protocols it is not mentioned as a contra indication. Would CPAP be an appropriate treatment? If so would it still be appropriate if this patient was suspected of having pneumonia a few days prior by nursing staff. Thank you.

Question: In the area in which I work, there exists a statistical cluster of clients with Myasthenia Gravis. One client that I have now transported at least three times has got the message to call at the first sign of increasing SOB. Most recently he woke up at about 0300 feeling a bit more SOB than normal and not quite right. When we arrived at his house at 0600 he met us outside ambulatory and he had a temp of 39.8C. He was tachypneic. He was in respiratory distress related (In my opinion) to both his MG as well as pneumonia. He adamantly refused the stretcher. He stated that as per his directions he had taken a dose Mestinon when he awoke and that it had not helped. He had a weak or pretty much absent cough. He was placed on placed on high flow O2 by 'Flow Max' and was given at least one Ventolin treatment again using the 'Flow Max'. His condition improved slightly. He was transported with great haste. I have reviewed MG as well as the action of Mestinon. At this point in his disease process he is still requesting that all that can be done be done. Do you have any suggestions as to how we can better care for this client? Putting headers on the ambulance, installing \'NOS\' or a spoiler is not an acceptable answer. Is CPAP a possibility? I am aware that pneumonia is a relative contraindication for CPAP use. The mechanism of the two disease is quite different but the inability to expand (active muscle use) the chest seems to make them similar. I have attempted to reseach an answer and the best I have gotten after talking with a couple of ED Docs is, 'Good question. Might buy you some time. How fast can you drive?' Thank you for your time in considering and answering this question

Question: I have a question about a call. Male patient severe SOB. Crackles throughout with a GCS of 4, suspected acute pulmonary edema. Obviously patient of out nitro protocol. Patient's spo2 31 and 42% with mottling noted. Patient's initial pulse 42 with a respiration rate of 33. CPAP is contraindicated at this time so ventilations assisted via BVM. Enroute patient's GCS improves to 15 and spo2 increases to 99% with ventilation assist. At this point could CPAP be applied or is it like the nitro protocol, once your out your out?

Question: On page 11 of the new Medical Directives it states that vital signs have been kept constant throughout the directives and that any exceptions are clearly noted in each directive. Tachypnea is defined as 28 or > however, I noticed confusion amongst peers stating condition for CPAP was still at 24b/m or >. New protocol simply states tachypnea as the condition. Please clarify

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