Category Archives: Bronchoconstriction

Question: In the Bronchoconstriction Medical Directive, would a patient ever receive salbutamol followed by epinephrine? Is epi there in case that the patient does not respond to salbutamol and instead gets worse after salbutamol administration? If the patient does not require epi at first, but instead is given salbutamol, then gets worse requiring epi, could that epi administration follow with salbutamol again?

Question: I have a question about the benefits between using MDI vs. nebulized ventolin. I understand the direction is to use MDI as the preferred route. It certainly makes sense with anybody who is infectious but seems counterintuitive when you could be administering drug with oxygen at the same time as with the case of nebulization. There is also a perceived psychological benefit when patients can feel and see the mist. I have heard about studies that were done at Sick Kids to support MDI use. I was unable to locate them. Is there any other evidence you can suggest as to why MDI is the preferred route? Thank you so much for your time.

Question: Some years ago during a recert in the fall a question was posed regarding administering a nebulized treatment of ventolin to a patient who otherwise would not tolerate an MDI but also had a fever above 38C (all other conditions met). The question was answered by stating if all attempts fail for use of the MDI, a nebulized treatment could be administered if all droplet precautions were taken (N95 worn, gown worn closed window to cab area, goes without saying truck disinfected). Is this in fact the case? (Updated)

Question: Would it be a waste of a paramedic’s time to deliver Salbutamol through a BVM to an unconscious patient while setting up for Epi in the case of an Asthma or anaphylaxis? Would the OPA if used, not block the mist and prevent inhalation? To me, Epi administration (scenario dependent) would be the priority. Thanks

Question: With regards to EPI administration, presumably under the Bronchoconstriction directive. We do not have auto-injectors in the service I work in. Our directives indicate ONE administration via IM. My question is regarding the patient's previous use of their own auto-injector. I would assume that if they still met our protocol showing appropriate signs and symptoms, that their injector did not work and I would administer our EPI IM once only. Thoughts?

Question: CPAP for CHF and COPD is to maintain a constant pressure in the airways (splinting with COPD) and to help push the fluid out of the alveoli and into the circulation with CHF. Would paramedics who do not have CPAP available be wrong, if the patient is conscious and tolerates, assist each inhalation with a BVM to increase tidal volume and create more positive pressure during inhalation, although not maintained with exhalation, in an attempt to force the fluid out with CHF. Debate is that we assist the ventilation at one breath every 5 seconds or 12/minute unless hyperventilating due to head trauma and respiratory problems with coning of the pupil(s). Thanks for the assistance.

Question: In regards to the bronchoconstriction protocol, in order to administer to Epi, the patient must require BVM ventilation and have a history of asthma. What if the patient is alone or they are so short of breath that a history of asthma cannot be obtained? Or possibly this could be their very first asthma attack without an actual diagnosis yet?

We were dispatched to an 8 year old with asthma experiencing SOB; on arrival no wheezing present, lungs clear, no obvious respiratory distress noted, sats at 95 RA; 100 on o2. Mom states he takes puffers but his doctor never actually told her that he has asthma. I found this odd since he is on ventolin and steroid rescue inhaler. If that scenario was different, and we did have to bag him, we absolutely can't give this patient Epi due to the fact that the doctor never confirmed he has asthma even though he is prescribed inhalers? Is this correct?

Would a BHP patch be appropriate for an order, knowing that his air entry is diminished and the probable cause is severe bronchoconstriction, most likely due to asthma but not confirmed by diagnosis according to parent?

Question: I have heard from our base hospital that MAC is considering removing KING-LT airways from the directives? Is this true, and if so, what supraglottic rescue airway option are they looking at going to, both for ACP's and PCP's. Not every patient can be ventilated using BVM alone.

I've also heard that they are looking at removing needle cric and intubation from ACP scope? If this is true, then why? Intubation does have major problems in the pre-hospital setting, but outside of cardiac arrest it is a very valuable method of controlling the airway (the gold standard) especially for long transport times or complex patient presentations.

Finally, I understand the theoretical rational behind not using CPAP in asthma PTS, but there are services in North America using it for end-stage asthma exacerbation as a option before intubating the patient. They combine low levels of CPAP (3-5 cmH2O) with a salbutamol nebulizer tied in line to the CPAP mask and are getting good results.

Is there any possibility of a clinical trial of CPAP in asthma exacerbation refractory to salbutamol/epi alone? Is there evidence against using it in asthma (besides theoretical problems).

Question: Could you clarify the Bronchoconstriction directive (epi for asthma exacerbation)? You have to be bagging the patient to give the epi. Our old directives said "any patient with severe SOB from suspected asthma exacerbation AND requires ventilatory support via BVM and OR severe agitation, confusion and cyanosis" but our new directive just says BVM required with history of asthma. I just want to be really clear, now we MUST be bagging them?

Question: In regards to the bronchoconstriction protocol I was recently in a discussion with a coworker disputing the 5-15 min dosing interval. The question was does this interval begin when treatment begins or once a treatment is completed. For example nebulized ventolin may take approximately 5 mins to fully nebulize could I administer a second treatment immediately or would I have to wait 5-15 mins post completion of a treatment. Clarification would be greatly appreciated.

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